Year: 2014. [285] Author Jack London wrote that he was more stimulated by Nietzsche than by any other writer. [52] The family then moved to Naumburg, where they lived with Nietzsche's maternal grandmother and his father's two unmarried sisters. Modern Europe and Christianity exist in a hypocritical state due to a tension between master and slave morality, both contradictory values determining, to varying degrees, the values of most Europeans (who are "motley"). Wilhelm, Bismarck, and all anti-Semites abolished. However, Nietzsche referred to Kant as a "moral fanatic", Plato as "boring", Mill as a "blockhead", and of Spinoza, he said: "How much of personal timidity and vulnerability does this masquerade of a sickly recluse betray? Although Nietzsche had previously announced at the end of On the Genealogy of Morality a new work with the title The Will to Power: Attempt at a Revaluation of All Values, he seems to have abandoned this idea and, instead, used some of the draft passages to compose Twilight of the Idols and The Antichrist in 1888.[100]. 1908. [176][177][178] Nietzsche rejected the idea of objective reality, arguing that knowledge is contingent and conditional, relative to various fluid perspectives or interests. [292] In Russia, Nietzsche influenced Russian symbolism[293] and figures such as Dmitry Merezhkovsky,[294] Andrei Bely,[295] Vyacheslav Ivanov and Alexander Scriabin incorporated or discussed parts of Nietzsche philosophy in their works. [115] Nietzsche had previously written, "All superior men who were irresistibly drawn to throw off the yoke of any kind of morality and to frame new laws had, if they were not actually mad, no alternative but to make themselves or pretend to be mad." Wahnbriefe", Nietzsches Briefe, Ausgewählte Korrespondenz, Wahnzettel 1889, "Nietzsche's Visionary Values – Genius or Dementia? [65] There, he became close friends with his fellow student Erwin Rohde. What is ape to man? [108] Nietzsche's reception and recognition enjoyed their first surge. Overbeck traveled to Turin and brought Nietzsche to a psychiatric clinic in Basel. [2] Nietzsche resigned in 1879 due to health problems that plagued him most of his life; he completed much of his core writing in the following decade. It shaped their philosophical and cultural endeavors, as well as their political understanding. He wants a kind of spiritual evolution of self-awareness and overcoming of traditional views on morality and justice that stem from the superstition beliefs still deeply rooted or related to the notion of God and Christianity. Frenzy acts as intoxication and is crucial for the physiological condition that enables the creation of any art. 1947. "If my life were to recur, then it could recur only in identical fashion." [196] Still, Nietzsche saw his philosophy as a counter-movement to nihilism through appreciation of art: Art as the single superior counterforce against all will to negation of life, art as the anti-Christian, anti-Buddhist, anti-Nihilist par excellence. To the end of his life, Gast and Overbeck remained consistently faithful friends. La teologia delia morte di DioIneontri culturali Perche 1'etica, perche il trágicoPrassi e teoria Nietzsche e !a filosofia . Converted file can differ from the original. While at Basel, Nietzsche lectured on pre-Platonic philosophers for several years, and the text of this lecture series has been characterized as a "lost link" in the development of his thought. Painter Giovanni Segantini was fascinated by Thus Spoke Zarathustra, and he drew an illustration for the first Italian translation of the book. [53][better source needed], In 1854, he began to attend Domgymnasium in Naumburg. The idea that one value-system is no more worthy than the next, although it may not be directly ascribed to Nietzsche, has become a common premise in modern social science. Value emerges from the contrast between good and evil: good being associated with other-worldliness, charity, piety, restraint, meekness, and submission; while evil is worldly, cruel, selfish, wealthy, and aggressive. (Daybreak, 14) The diagnosis of syphilis has since been challenged and a diagnosis of "manic-depressive illness with periodic psychosis followed by vascular dementia" was put forward by Cybulska prior to Schain's study. Nietzsche recognized this and maintained his solitude, though he often complained. "[139], Nietzsche never married. [211][212] As such, according to Nietzsche, the drive for conservation appears as the major motivator of human or animal behavior only in exceptions, as the general condition of life is not one of a 'struggle for existence. [160] His writings have also been described as a revolutionary project in which his philosophy serves as the foundation of a European cultural rebirth.[161][162]. "[191] Just as "there is an order of rank between man and man", there is also an order of rank "between morality and morality. Nietzsche objects to Euripides' use of Socratic rationalism and morality in his tragedies, claiming that the infusion of ethics and reason robs tragedy of its foundation, namely the fragile balance of the Dionysian and Apollonian. "German Philosophy in 1907. [90] Arriving in Leipzig, (Germany) in October, Salomé and Rée separated from Nietzsche after a falling-out between Nietzsche and Salomé, in which Salomé believed that Nietzsche was desperately in love with her. Nietzsche's first philological publications appeared soon after. [1987] 1988. After his death, Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche became the curator and editor of her brother's manuscripts. According to this view, our existence (action, suffering, willing, feeling) has no meaning: this 'in vain' is the nihilists' pathos—an inconsistency on the part of the nihilists. Overbeck and Gast decided to withhold publishing The Antichrist and Ecce Homo because of their more radical content. [39] His body of work touched a wide range of topics, including art, philology, history, religion, tragedy, culture, and science, and drew early inspiration from figures such as philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer,[20] composer Richard Wagner,[20] and writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. [310][311][312] Nietzsche's influence on the works of Frankfurt School philosophers Max Horkheimer and Theodor W. Adorno[313] can be seen in the Dialectic of Enlightenment. The Wagners brought Nietzsche into their most intimate circle—including Franz Liszt, of whom Nietzsche colloquially described: "Liszt or the art of running after women! [67][68] Consequently, he turned his attention to his studies again, completing them in 1868. Nietzsche attended a boys' school and then a private school, where he became friends with Gustav Krug and Wilhelm Pinder, all three of whom came from highly respected families. [41], According to The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "He is famous for uncompromising criticisms of traditional European morality and religion, as well as of conventional philosophical ideas and social and political pieties associated with modernity. Так говорил Заратустра (с репродукциями картин Л. Хейдиз из цикла "Так говорил Заратустра" )", "Postomodern considerations of Nietzschean perspectivism", "Jung's Reception of Friedrich Nietzsche: A Roadmap for the Uninitiated by Dr. Ritske Rensma", Public Opinions, Private Laziness: The Epistemological Break in Nietzsche,, "In defence of slavery: Nietzsche's Dangerous Thinking", Entry on Nietzsche at the Encyclopædia Britannica, Publications by and about Friedrich Nietzsche, "Nietzsche's Moral and Political Philosophy", Nietzsche Source: Digital version of the German critical edition of the complete works and Digital facsimile edition of the entire Nietzsche estate, Lexido: Searchable Database index of Public Domain editions of all Nietzsche's major works, International Music Score Library Project, Prof. Nietzsche and the Crisis in Philosophy, Biographical Archive of Psychiatry (BIAPSY), Newspaper clippings about Friedrich Nietzsche, Nietzsche and the Postmodern Condition (1991), Relationship between religion and science,, German military personnel of the Franco-Prussian War, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with incomplete citations from November 2012, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2010, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles lacking reliable references from October 2019, Articles needing additional references from October 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2020, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Articles with Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy links, Articles with International Music Score Library Project links, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "My life will recur in exactly identical fashion:" this expresses a totally, "My life may recur in exactly identical fashion:" This second view conditionally asserts. ISBN 13: 9788868262754. [324] Georg Simmel compares Nietzsche's importance to ethics to that of Copernicus for cosmology. Nietzsche subsequently concentrated on studying philology under Professor Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl, whom he followed to the University of Leipzig in 1865. Indeed, Mazzino Montinari, the editor of Nietzsche's Nachlass, called it a forgery.[125]. Gordon, E.R. Nietzsche also met Franz Overbeck, a professor of theology who remained his friend throughout his life. Whether man recovers from it, whether he becomes a master of this crisis, is a question of his strength! Although Nietzsche has famously been misrepresented as a predecessor to Nazism, he criticized anti-Semitism, pan-Germanism and, to a lesser extent, nationalism. What happened remains unknown, but an often-repeated tale from shortly after his death states that Nietzsche witnessed the flogging of a horse at the other end of the Piazza Carlo Alberto, ran to the horse, threw his arms around its neck to protect it, then collapsed to the ground. Apollonian and Dionysian juxtapositions appear in the interplay of tragedy: the tragic hero of the drama, the main protagonist, struggles to make (Apollonian) order of his unjust and chaotic (Dionysian) fate, though he dies unfulfilled. "[284] Famous writers and poets influenced by Nietzsche include André Gide, August Strindberg, Robinson Jeffers, Pío Baroja, D.H. Lawrence, Edith Södergran and Yukio Mishima. He spent his winters in the Italian cities of Genoa, Rapallo, and Turin and the French city of Nice. A laughing stock or painful embarrassment. Because his sister arranged the book based on her own conflation of several of Nietzsche's early outlines and took liberties with the material, the scholarly consensus has been that it does not reflect Nietzsche's intent. [257] Notably, he also read some of the posthumous works of Charles Baudelaire,[258] Tolstoy's My Religion, Ernest Renan's Life of Jesus, and Fyodor Dostoyevsky's Demons. However, his colleagues within his field, including Ritschl, expressed little enthusiasm for the work in which Nietzsche eschewed the classical philologic method in favor of a more speculative approach. Humanity still has no goal." Soon Nietzsche made contact with the music-critic Carl Fuchs. [202], Nietzsche felt that modern antisemitism was "despicable" and contrary to European ideals. 2002. Yeats and Arthur Symons described Nietzsche as the intellectual heir to William Blake. I believe it is one of the greatest crises, a moment of the deepest self-reflection of humanity. [275] Nietzsche is known today as a precursor to existentialism, post-structuralism and postmodernism. He was only 24 years old and had neither completed his doctorate nor received a teaching certificate ("habilitation"). [276], W.B. ", Forth, C. E. 1993. Salomé's mother took her to Rome when Salomé was 21. [227], Another concept important to understanding Nietzsche is the Übermensch (Overman). According to Deussen, Nietzsche "never decided to remain unmarried all his life. She had been interested in Nietzsche as a friend, but not as a husband. [70], Despite his offer coming at a time when he was considering giving up philology for science, he accepted. [297][298] Hermann Hesse, similarly, in his Narcissus and Goldmund presents two main characters as opposite yet intertwined Apollonian and Dionysian spirits. 13. sfn error: no target: CITEREFNietzsche1887 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFNietzsche1888b (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFNietzsche1961 (, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. This letter contains the following statement: Hence the ways of men part: if you wish to strive for peace of soul and pleasure, then believe; if you wish to be a devotee of truth, then inquire....[64]. A basic element in Nietzsche's philosophical outlook is the "will to power" (der Wille zur Macht), which he maintained provides a basis for understanding human behavior—more so than competing explanations, such as the ones based on pressure for adaptation or survival. [166] Both of these principles are meant to represent cognitive states that appear through art as the power of nature in man.[167]. Because his father had worked for the state (as a pastor) the now-fatherless Nietzsche was offered a scholarship to study at the internationally recognized Schulpforta (the claim that Nietzsche was admitted on the strength of his academic competence has been debunked: his grades were not near the top of the class). Afrikan Spir, a little-known Russian philosopher responsible for the 1873 Thought and Reality and Nietzsche's colleague, the famed historian Jacob Burckhardt, whose lectures Nietzsche frequently attended, began to exercise significant influence on him.[80]. The willingness is more essential than the merit of the goal itself, according to Nietzsche. The most accepted source is a New Year's Eve religious service in the 1300s.

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