The rest does not concern him.’ He is here, of course, alluding to lyric poetry, which, as being individual, will, he thinks, resist longer than any other form of poetry the ‘invasion of historic realism which now pervades all departments of human thought.’ But it will survive only on condition that it continue to be Art. (Bologna, 1957), p. 678. In that poem of the Rime nuove the spirit of resistance to Slav and Hunnish invaders derives from two precise things: the survival of Roman notions of political order, however rudimentary (senate and consul), and the spiritual solidarity of the people provided by a simple faith in the efficacy of the Church's rites (the symbols of the Mass). For him this past had its roots in the remote pagan world of Roman antiquity. He first saw the light at Val di Castello in 1837. His early years of struggle and political stress left little time for the play of personal emotion, and his austerity kept him free from the sensuality of Stecchetti, who led the other branch of the reaction against Manzonian romanticism. There came an end to the days at Valdicastello, and he was sent first to a clerical school where he was as out of his element as might be expected, and then to the normal school in Pisa, which he felt was conducted by pedants. Now, however, the Carduccian form has lost the quite physical vehemence of certain epodes, and here, as in the ode “Alle Fonti del Clitunno” [“The Sources of the Clitumnus”], his protest against Christianity has the tone of poetry. See too Trompeo, Carducci e D'Annunzio, 73-8, where the possibility of a foreign influence in Sainte-Beuve is rejected, and G. C., Rime nuove (1961), 261-5, where Carducci's ironical reaction to an alleged source of Maria's ‘restio seno’ (10-11) is cited (p. 262: ‘Ora sapete voi donde ho disegnato quel seno? Word Count: 5818. The trend of the Latin mind to classification and analysis asserts itself in literature as elsewhere. For more than a century, these academic institutions have worked independently to select Nobel Laureates in each prize category. Even the sonnet he made harder by limiting himself to two sets of rhymes for all the fourteen lines. As with other examples of the genre of brindisi (see Juvenilia II.29, VI.94; Rime nuove III.57 ‘Brindisi funebre’), Carducci employs stanzas of four short, emphatic lines. It would not present itself of its own accord. Hazardous of course it is, yet with less of deliberate defiance than would at first appear, far less than there would be in a like experiment by an English poet, although there are plenty of allusions to mechanical invention in English poetry. To thee, Agramainius, Adonis, Astarte, lived marbles and canvas and parchments, when Venus Anadyomene made happy the calm breezes of Ionia. When Carducci wrote these words, he had just begun to make a direct acquaintance of the great foreign romantic writers. His inmost soul was with Dante, the Italian patriot; it was not with Dante, the cosmopolitan mystic. A. S. Novaro wrote in ‘A Mussolini’ (1935): ‘E le madri alla gonfia / Mamella appesero ancora / I poppanti come gioielli’; in 1947, Baldini found the image ‘sardanapalesco’.33Romanità and sanità were of course eminently laudable in Carducci's eyes. There are praises of a people, or of a district, such as the odes “Piemonte,” “Cadore,” “Alla città di Ferrara,” “Bicocca San Giacomo,” “Le due Torri” [“The Two Towers”], “La Moglie del Gigante” [“The Giants's Wife”], “Davanti il castel vecchio di Verona” [“Before the Old Castle of Verona”], “A una Bottiglia di Valtellina del 1848” [“A Bottle of 1848 Vintage Valtellina”]. It is this national inspiration behind Carducci's classicism and his use of the classical metres that distinguishes it from the similar attempt of Swinburne. His corrective for them was Nature and Reason, the classic spirit. Phaethon ended his mad career in the river Po, whose banks are lined with poplars, exuding still their tear-like drops of amber. Such moods as that of the meditations at Trent in the ‘Reisebilder,’ or of ‘Mir träumte wieder der alte Traum,’ are not to be imitated. Thou didst turn to glory the yearnings of love, whence thou didst foster Godward the spring of thy years, and thy maidenhood was cold and lonely in the heyday of youth. © 2021 Carducci Quartet. Examples of this Carduccian poetry are to be found in all the volumes of Carducci, without regard to chronological consideration. It was no doubt Carducci's conviction that he too in his turn would leave a literary legacy. This is the subject of this anacreontic ode (for metre see notes to ‘Pianto antico’, …), written in 1883, which conveys impressionistically the sights, sounds and smells of an autumnal village scene, probably in the Tuscan Maremma, against the backdrop of a stormy sea: a rural quadretto of the type which Giovanni Pascoli, Carducci's pupil, would later extensively employ in his poetry. So, to some extent, he does; but his aim is even bolder, namely, to apply such feeling to the life of our own day. In September 1860, being then a month or two past twenty-four years of age, Carducci was appointed by Terenzio Mamiani, at that time Minister of Public Instruction, to a professorial chair at the University of Bologna. His heart returns to his ‘cari selvaggi colli che il giovane april rifioria’ (8) and he sees himself in the company of his brother Dante walking with their radiant young mother in a colourful rustic setting: The comparison with Maria is easy to make.34 A similarity can even be seen in the haunting figure of his grandmother in ‘Davanti San Guido’ (Rime nuove, December 1874) where the sentiment often runs parallel to that in ‘Idillio maremmano’. For a man of Carducci's stature, however, being a monarchist or a republican did not mean shutting oneself up within a party; it meant rather having a feeling for whichever party might seem best fitted to further the development of Italy. His material is Italian, its spirit and form Italian, born of her ancient hills and streams, animated by her ideals, nurtured by her history. Sorbelli (ed. This poem was conceived, as Carducci himself records, during his official visit to Perugia over the summer examination period of the ‘licenza liceale’ in 1877, and elaborated in the following year: ‘in Perugia nella piazza ove già sorgeva la Rocca Paolina’. His finest effort is perhaps the “Miramar;” but separated from this by no great interval are “Su Monte Mario,” “Alessandria,” and “Presso l'Urna di Percy Bysshe Shelley.”, “Miramar” may be called a song of doom. They had moved to Florence by this time, and were living in a modest house near the Porta Romana, which to-day wears a tablet. Yet, while the poet sits and muses where Dante may once have knelt and beheld the face of God, as he wept for his ‘bel San Giovanni,’ dislike of Catholicism is overcome by a sense of the historic function of religion as the great consoler. l.27), was a proponent of monarchical absolutism. The castle ruins are now gone, its moat and bailey given over to pasture and woodland. Carducci's landscapes are wide luminous backgrounds for men and human affairs. P. P. Trompeo, Carducci e D'Annunzio (Rome, 1943), 69. It is only natural that one who is pre-eminently a poet of Italia redenta should “love the name and revere the memory of that divine singer of the virgin brow and the Titan spirit,” who was the apostle of the literary aufklärung in England and the writer of the inspired Prometheus Unbound—a creation as grand and unique as the Δεsμώτης of the old Athenian. This Blessed Diana Giuntini is a holy patroness of her native place—‘as who should say,’ remarks Carducci with his calm paganism, ‘a dea indiges’—was born in 1187, and died in the odour of sanctity in 1231. “Nostalgia”, from this collection, again offers vibrant natural imagery, but this time to suggest the idyllic countryside of his carefree youth. Most men have the defects of their qualities; and with Carducci an exquisite sense of what was ancient and pagan was balanced by a certain insensibility to what was medieval and Christian. He is the author of a variety of critical essays and studies, which, besides giving evidence of extensive and solid erudition, have the charm of an elegant, clear, and vigorous style. And where shall we find a more glorious tribute paid by genius to genius than Carducci's “Presso l'Urna di Percy Bysshe Shelley?” His magic lines transport us with the celerity of an Ariosto to the resplendent Isles of Fancy, floating in distant seas—like Lucian's poetic conception of the νῆsος Μακάρων—where the heroes and the heroines of Classicalism and Romanticism wander side by side in strange but not uncongenial companionship. Here ‘Satan’ stands for ‘le due divinità … la natura e la ragione,’ which represent for Carducci all those worthwhile things which the Church, in the Italy of his day, seemed to him to belittle, oppose or denounce: physical love, beauty in nature and art, confidence in man's ability to transform the material world, freedom of thought and expression, unprejudiced intellectual enquiry, industrial and social progress. The poet answered: “Who am I that a national pension should be given me? Baldini, ‘“IM”’, 246). Lines entitled ‘Alle Valchirie,’ on the murder of the Austrian Empress, recall ‘Miramar,’ though certainly inferior to it. Biographical G iosuè Carducci (1835-1907) was born in Val di Castello, a small town near Pisa. When he was but three years old his father removed from Pietrasanta to Bolgheri, in the province of Pisa, an ancient possession of the historical family of the Counts of the Gherardesca. France remained a republic in name, however, until 1804, when Napoleon was crowned first Emperor of France. The Roman tradition in this respect, as in others, extended to French poetry also. Celtic: i.e. Rather, everyday life seemed such a shabby affair in that first, gloomy phase of the industrial era, controlled by steam (in comparison with which the modern phase, controlled by power, looks so bright), that the souls of the artists sought refuge and forgetfulness in a dream-world of their minds: forgetfulness from the disappointments of political revolutions, 1830 and 1848, refuge from the growing squalor of towns, from the growing meanness of familiar and social life. Wherefore to thee, taught by human sorrow, arise our praises and our prayers in hymns, and, when the year is full, thine altar is decked with votive honour. His practised hand strikes with ever growing vigor the note of liberty, of enfranchisement from political and intellectual slavery. Brought before the magistrate, Carducci's assailant was condemned to a fine; he would have been more severely dealt with had not Carducci, in his great generosity and magnanimity declared that he had not noticed anything. If he had been reminded that democracy also was a foreign idea, born of the French Revolution and the English constitution, he would have pointed backward to the Roman Republic and the free Italian communes of the Middle Ages. ‘Why turn back?’, “‘My child,’ he answered, ‘easy it was and a joy to lead a band of eager youths to the ringing words ‘Republic’ and ‘Freedom.’ All young Italy followed with shouts and cheers. The poems in which the landscape plays a dominant role, regardless of the themes treated within, represent some of Carducci's most beautiful and enduring work. His writings are collected in fifty-two volumes in the Edizione Nazionale. … I have never understood why poets of Latin descent so greatly hate and insult the cicada. From every part of Italy Carducci's pupils—now themselves already well-known professors—flocked to Bologna. Written in September 1863 (although not completed until its publication two years later), the poem was recited first at a dinner-party amongst friends as a toast (brindisi). How then shall an Italian of a new-born Italy be most national, an Italian to whom the word antica has none of our sense of distant, dead, but is instinct with reverence and patriotism? When a greater number of professors is elected a ballot is taken, and Carducci's name was amongst those rejected. ‘They are good boys, I love them,’ he said. Is it permissible then for us to equate the languid society lady with the peasant girl? Perhaps that mould is broken. He used classical Greek and Latin metrical and verse forms to support his political views more extensively in Giambi ed epodi (1882; which may be translated as Iambics and Epodes). At first he felt uncomfortable; he felt the conflict between his own poetry and the obligations of philology. Illness forced him to stop teaching in 1904. Both were intellectual aristocrats, free from the prejudices of their class, writing from themselves unto themselves, superbly disdainful of the judgments of Philistia. He would have loved the singer of the passionate laments and chants and paeans of “Songs before Sunrise,” to whom Mazzini was the symbol of ideality, the theme of most beautiful lines of dedication and tribute. 5. The two last lines seem to us worth quoting, for the sake of the terrible figure which the poet sketches in with a word, and gives as a companion to the ‘pallida Mors’ of Horace. In early Roman times, the Tiber, later diverted, flowed at the foot of the Palatine, between that hill and the Aventine to the south. Again, however, where Leopardi drowns voluptuously in a sea of infinite silence—“E il naufragar m'è dolce in questo mare”—Carducci drowns in a sea (or “nirvana,” as he puts it) of luminosity and sounds—“nirvana di splendori e suoni.” These meridian “sounds” are first of all the actual chirring of the cicadas, but also, it should be noted, the metaphorical yet exultant “singing” of all of nature—fields, mountains, and forests. reference is to the Piano della Dogana (now Piano di Spluga), which in Carducci's day was pitted with small lakes, but is now partially submerged beneath a reservoir. Carducci's friendship!